The Effect of a Multi-Strategy Program on Developing Social Behaviors Based on Pender’s Health Promotion Model to Prevent Loneliness of Old Women Referred to Gonabad Urban Health Centers

Document Type: Original article

Authors

1 Department of Community and Mental Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Maragheh Faculty of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran

2 Department of Community and Mental Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Social Determinants of Health Research Centre, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran

3 Department of Public Health, School of Health; Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran

4 Department of Public Health, School of Health; Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran

Abstract

Background: Loneliness is one of the most significant problems during aging. This research has been done to determine the effect of a multi-strategy program based on Pender’s Health Promotion model to prevent loneliness of elderly women by improving social relationships. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study done in 2013 from January to November, 150 old women suffering medium loneliness referred to Gonabad urban Health Centers were enrolled. Data were gathered using Russell’s UCLA loneliness questionnaire and the questionnaires based on Pender’s Health Promotion Model about loneliness. The results were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Chi-square, T-pair, and independent-T tests through SPSS, version 20. Results: Loneliness decreased significantly in the interventional group compared to the control group (P<0.00). In addition, mean scores related to variables of Health Promotion Model (received benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, interpersonal effectives of loneliness) in both groups were significantly different before and after the study (P<0.05).Conclusion: Constructs of Pender’s Health Promotion Model can be used as a framework for planning interventions in order to anticipate, improve and modify related behaviors related to loneliness in old women.

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