Causes of Incivility in Iranian Nursing Students: A Qualitative Study

Document Type: Original article


1 Department of Nursing, Nursing and Midwifery School, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Nursing, Esfarayen Faculty of Medical Sciences, Esfarayen, Iran

3 Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4 Evidence- Based Caring Research Center, Department of Medical- Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, and Department of Medical Education, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Background: Incivility among nursing students is a common academic problem. Knowing the causes of students’ incivility will enable the faculty members and academic institutions to select correct strategies to deal with this problem. This study was conducted to explore the causes of incivility among nursing students from both educators’ and students’ points of view.Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was applied in order to explore experiences and insights of 17 nursing lecturers and 9 nursing students who were selected through purposeful sampling and interviewed on the causes of incivility. Participants were selected among students and lecturers of nursing schools in Khorasan Razavi. The inclusion criteria for the students were having passed one educational term and for the lecturers having one year experience of teaching respectively. Data gathering was done using deep semi-structured interviews starting from March 2014 to March 2015.Results: Three main categories extracted from the data were student related factors, teacher related factors, and organizational factors. Non-educational engagement, attracting attentions, lack of motivation, students’ personality, and lack of experience were the subcategories of student related factors. Subcategories of teacher related factors included lack of skills, teachers’ personal qualities, lack of experience, and incivility of teachers. Finally, the subcategories of organizational factors included no evaluation system for teachers and lack of understanding the organizational rules and regulations.Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that factors related to students, teachers, and organization may lead to nursing students’ incivility and clarified its dimensions. In order to develop a civil environment in nursing college, managers and educators’ awareness should be promoted via various ways such as workshops.