The Effects of Virtual Directed Painting Therapy on Anxiety, Depression, and Self-efficacy of Children with Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran;

2 Community Based Psychiatric Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran;

3 Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran;

4 Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

Background: Diabetes-induced anxiety, depression, and decreased self-efficacy lead to poor adherence to treatment in diabetic children. Since painting therapy seems to be helpful to express their feelings, this study aimed to investigate the effects of virtual directed painting therapy on anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy in diabetic children.
Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 40 children with type 1 diabetes aged 8-12 years who were referred to Imam Reza Clinic of Diabetes in Shiraz, from July to October 2020. Children were randomly selected and assigned to intervention and control groups, using block randomization. The intervention group received the routine care plus virtual painting therapy directed by WhatsApp (six 2-hour group sessions once a week for six weeks). Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale, Maria Kovacs Children’s Depression Inventory, and Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale were completed before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed through SPSS 23, using Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, and Wilcoxon tests. P value Results: After the intervention, the median (interquartile range) total scores for anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy in the intervention group were 48.50 (45.00-51.75), 7.00 (4.00-9.00), and 169.00 (154.00-
178.00), and in the control group 55.00 (48.50-62.25), 13.00 (10.00-17.50), and 152.00, respectively (110.50-184.00). After the intervention, there was a significant difference between the groups regarding anxiety (P=0.02) and depression (p <0.001); however, the difference in self-efficacy was not significant (P=0.20).
Conclusion: Painting therapy should be considered as a part of care programs in diabetes centers and other community settings to control anxiety and depression of diabetic children.

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